From a morphological point of view, the territory of the county of San Giuliano Terme, is decisively divided by mountains which interest the Monti Pisani area, and partly by a plain that is defined as the Pianura Centrale Pisana. This plain extends from the borders between the river Arno and the river Serchio. From a geological point of view it is obvious this plain is mostly of a flood nature deriving from the deposits of the Serchio River. Geologically speaking the plain of San Giuliano is a very deep tectonic basin at the foot of which on the eastern side is the most western face of the Monti Pisano, the Monti d¹Oltre Serchio, and the Apuani Alps. As for the southern front the plain is surrounded by the Livornese Hills and the Pisa Hills; while the western front is formed by the Dorsale, also called Meloria-Maestra, still submerged by the sea. The name Monti Pisani is therefore an indicator of the small mountain chain sitting on the northeast side of Pisa, between the Arno valley and the Serchio valley. It was during the (Perno-Carboniferous) era that this formation formed, first rising from the ground, and then sinking again. This theory would explain the presence of both the sharp rises and the deep precipes of the plain. It is because of its peculiar formation, that the Monti Pisani are thought to be one of the oldest mountain formation of the Italian peninsula, in existence when most of the land now considered Italian, was still under water.
The mountain range extends from north-west to south-east for a length of 20 kilometers and a width of 10 kilometers creating a suggestive fan-shaped from which emerges the Faeta Mountain (830 mt.), the San Allago Point (spuntone) (870mt.), the Monte Serra (917 mt.), the Monte Prune (876mt.) and the characteristic Monte Verruca (537 mt.). Within the limestone surface of Monte Pisano there are formerly active open mines, anciently used as a prime resource for construction material. These caves are now an integral part of both the beauty and the history of the countryside. At the dawn of Christianity the Monti Pisani were the epicenter of intense religious activity. Such territory was an ideal place for prayer and retreat. To this, stand as testimonies the numerous Churches, Oratories and Parishes found in this area. To this day, it is possible to walk the old mule-tracks and paths thanks to the area¹s still intact and typical environment, and in doing so it is easy to find old villages and fortresses. On the sea border between Livorno and Viareggio we find the Natural Reserve of Migliarino, of San Rossore, Massaciuccoli, that encompass the San Giuliano county, covering 23,000 hectares. There are dunes, igrofile forests, marshy areas, all of which offer refuge to a great number of animal species. There are a rich ornithological variety. The bogs and the lake are hosts to numerous species of local, brooding, (stanziali di passo, nidificanti) birds such as the red heron and the (cinerino) and the royal duck, the swamp hawk and the Italian knight (cavaliere). Over 200 migratory species are found, whether brooding or migrant. Animals such as deer, boars, fox, porcupine, dormice, badgers, squirrels are inclusive of the wealth and variety of the animal population of the park. The park¹s flower life encompasses the (drosera) a small carnivorous plant, a swamp orchid, The Pink hibiscus, the Floridian fern, and the Greek (periploca). The Park¹s authorities encourage several activities, which include trail excursions, horse riding, bicycling, and canoeing. Furthermore, there are summer camps with continuing education sections for teachers and nature
guides, and internships for nature and environmental studies.

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